Optic nerve sheath meningioma: current diagnosis and treatment.
Optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSMs) are rare tumors of the anterior visual pathway and constitute approximately 2% of all orbital tumors and 1-2% of all meningiomas. Untreated ONSMs almost always lead to progressive visual decline, color blindness, and finally complete loss of vision. Although resection is warranted in cases of widespread ONSM, surgery can lead to significant morbidity. Recently, stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy has shown effectiveness in improving or stabilizing remaining visual function with minimal procedural morbidity in patients with ONSM. The authors review the incidence, histopathological characteristics, clinical presentation, neuroimaging findings, and current treatment modalities for ONSMs, with an emphasis on fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.