Physiology of flower bud growth and opening
Flower growth and opening are commonplace events, but physiologically intricate and inadequately explained. In this review, we have brought together and evaluated information on this subject to focus attention on the dynamic facets of flower development. In particular, the physiological basis of flower bud dormancy, nature of cleistogamy, mechanism of flower bud growth and turgor maintenance and role of stamens in corolla growth have been examined. The regulation of flower movements and opening by temperature and light, and circadian rhythms in flower opening have been discussed, along with a consideration of the role of the petal epidermis in light perception. It is emphasized that studies on flower physiology need to be intensified in view of the lacunae in our basic knowledge as well as to provide a sound basis for improving yields of both agricultural and horticultural crops.