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Psychobiological roots of early attachment

by Shuji Honjo, Shiori Arai, Hitoshi Kaneko, Tatsuo Ujiie, Satomi Murase, Haya Sechiyama, Yasuko Sasaki, Chie Hatagaki, Eri Inagaki, Motoko Usui, Kikuko Miwa, Michie Ishihara, Ohiko Hashimoto, Kenji Nomura, Atsuo Itakura, Kayo Inoko, Habiba Kapaya, Erin Mercer, Francesca Boffey, Georgina Jones, Caroline Mitchell, Dilly Anumba, M. Laxton-Kane, P. Slade, Julie Mcfarland, Amy L Salisbury, Cynthia L Battle, Barry M Lester, Catherine A. McMahon, Byranne Barnett, Nicholas M. Kowalenko, Christopher C. Tennant, Kazutaka Mogi, Miho Nagasawa, Takefumi Kikusui, M E Müller, Emma Robertson, Sherry Grace, Tamara Wallington, Donna E Stewart, Amy L Salisbury, Raymond Niaura, Laura R Stroud, Lisa Underwood, Karen Waldie, Stephanie D’Souza, Elizabeth R Peterson, Susan Morton, Emma C. Sarro, Donald A. Wilson, Regina M. Sullivan, Naomi Breslau, Glenn C Davis, Ruth Feldman, A. S. Fleming, D. H. O'Day, G. W. Kraemer, Myron A. Hofer, J. S. Radesky, B. Zuckerman, M. Silverstein, F. P. Rivara, M. Barr, J. A. Taylor, L. J. Lengua, R. G. Barr, Heidi Keller, Arnold Lohaus, Susanne Völker, Cornelia Elben, Juliane Ball, D Kommers, G Oei, W Chen, L Feijs, S Bambang Oetomo, et all Rogério dos Santos Alves; Alex Soares de Souza, J. Mercer, David R Pederson, Heidi N Bailey, George M Tarabulsy, Sandi Bento, Greg Moran, Jaqueline Galdino Albuquerque Perrelli, Carla Fonseca Zambaldi, Amaury Cantilino, Everton Botelho Sougey, Stephen W Porges show all authors
Current Biology ()
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OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a correlation exists between prenatal and postnatal attachment. DESIGN: Prospective, correlational study with data collected during the second half of pregnancy and again 1-2 months after delivery. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred twenty-eight women were recruited from childbirth education classes. The women were generally young, white, well educated, married, and employed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) was used to measure attachment before birth. The Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), the How I Feel About my Baby Now Scale, and the Maternal Separation Anxiety Scale were used to measure attachment after birth. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-six women completed all the measures. A correlation was found between PAI and MAI scores (r = 0.41, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A correlation between prenatal and postnatal attachment was found. However, the modest size of the correlation indicated that other factors also influenced postnatal scores. Thus, caution should be exercised when promoting increased prenatal attachment in hopes of improving postnatal attachment.

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