Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation

by Gretchen M. Spreitzer
Academy of Management Journal ()


This research begins to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of psychological empowerment in the workplace. Second-order confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with two complementary samples to demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of four dimensions of empowerment and their contributions to an overall construct of psychological empowerment. Structural equations modeling was used to examine a nomological network of psychological empowerment in the workplace. Tested hypotheses concerned key antecedents and consequences of the construct. Initial support for the construct validity of psychological empowerment was found. Directions for future research are discussed.

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