Retrieving effective parameters for metamaterials at oblique incidence
We introduce a technique to retrieve effective metamaterial parameters for arbitrary angles of incidence. It employs the complex reflection and/or transmission coefficients of a finite slab. Explicit expressions for both polarizations are derived and the constraints to be met for obtaining unique solutions are discussed. The method is applied to the fishnet structure. It turns out that all retrieved parameters strongly depend on the lateral wave vector component due to the complexity of the metamaterial structure. Thus, these parameters are mere wave parameters rather than global material parameters. The physical effects behind this behavior are very likely anisotropy and spatial dispersion.