Teacher influences on student achievement.
Research spanning two decades indicates that effective teaching demands the orchestration of a wide array of skills that must be adapted to specific contexts. Brophy reviews research that indicates that students achieve more when their teachers emphasize academic objectives in establishing expectations and allocating time, use effective management strategies to ensure that academic learning time is maximized, pace students through the curriculum briskly but in small steps that allow high rates of success, and adapt curriculum materials based on their knowledge of students' characteristics. Teachers differ in how they perform such instructional behaviors as giving information, asking questions, and providing feedback. Brophy concludes that any attempt to improve student achievement must be based on the development of effective teaching behavior. He considers the utility and limits of research on teaching and student achievement and cautions against its direct application to policy issues of teacher accountability.-The Editors. 1986 American Psychological Association.