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Teacher influences on student achievement

by Jere Brophy
American Psychologist ()
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Reviews research that indicates that students achieve more when their teachers emphasize academic objectives in establishing expectations and allocating time, use effective management strategies to ensure that academic learning time is maximized, pace students through the curriculum briskly but in small steps that allow high rates of success, and adapt curriculum materials based on their knowledge of students' characteristics. Qualitative research also indicates that teachers differ in how they perform such instructional behaviors as giving information, asking questions, and providing feedback. Context-specific effects are noted with respect to grade level, socioeconomic status (SES), ability and affect, and teacher intentions. It is concluded that any attempt to improve student achievement must be based on the development of effective teaching behavior. (66 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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