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Teaching White students about racism: The search for White allies and the restoration of hope

by Beverly Daniel Tatum
Teachers College Record ()


Discusses the issue of White allies in the battle against racism from the perspective of an African-American female college professor. White identity development after confrontation with issues of racism is outlined: (1) contact stage, (2) disintegration stage, (3) reintegration stage, (4) pseudo-independent stage, (5) immersion/emersion stage, and (6) autonomy stage. The model of the White ally is presented as an alternative to more negative models of whiteness (the White supremist model, the what whiteness? model, and the guilty White model). Educational implications include more awareness of White spokespeople for minority rights. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)

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