The common characteristic of various types of concentrated milk products is the reduced water content. Generally, the water is removed as vapor under reduced pressure (a partial vacuum) at relatively low product temperatures (in the approximate range of 43-80 °C [110-176 °F]). The products in this category vary with respect to (1) the degree of concentration; (2) percentage of milkfat; (3) whether preserved or perishable; (4) the method of preservation (if preserved); and (5) the milk fraction(s) utilized. Some forms of concentrated milk products are intended for beverage consumption, while others are primarily used as ingredients in the formulation of various food products. A thorough treatment of the chemical changes manifest in such dairy products as a result of high heat treatments, and long-term storage is available (Fox, 1995). © 2009Springer-Verlag New York.
Rankin, S. (2009). Concentrated and dried milk products. In The Sensory Evaluation of Dairy Products (pp. 333–385). Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-77408-4_11