Combined simple and complex cord knots

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Both double true knots and complex knots of the umbilical cord are rare events. This report presents a case in which the two occurrences were combined. Apart from some early decelerations in the first stage of labour, there was no evidence of fetal compromise. A mid-cavity forceps delivery performed for poor maternal effort resulted in the birth of a healthy female infant. The mechanism and consequences of umbilical cord knotting are reviewed. © 1995.

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Roberts, R. N. (1995). Combined simple and complex cord knots. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 62(1), 131–133.

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