We had experienced 117 Japanese Fabry patients (72 males and 45 females) from 1977 to 2006, and then we generated an improved Fabry analysis system in 2007 and have found 196 ones (95 males and 101 females) since then. In this study, we summarized the data of the patients and tried to elucidate the molecular and biochemical characteristics of Japanese Fabry patients. Gene analysis revealed various GLA mutations, including missense mutations (56.5%, 48 types); nonsense mutations (15.9%, 13 types); deletions (12.6%, 13 types); splicing defects (10.1%, 6 types); insertions (1.0%, 2 types), and insertions/deletions (0.5%, 1 type), in the patients that were tested. Amino acid substitutions resulting from the missense mutations found in the classic form patients tended to be localized in the core of the GLA protein, and those in the later-onset ones in the peripheral region. The most commonly identified pathogenic mutations are c.888G > A (p.M296I), c.936 + 919G > A, c.679C > T (p.R227X), c.335G > A (p.R112H), c.334C > T (p.R112C), and c.902G > A (p.R301Q). Among them, c.888G > A (p.M296I) is unique to Japanese Fabry patients. On the other hand, c.936 + 919G > A is a variant that has been frequently detected in Taiwan Chinese Fabry patients, and c.335G > A (p.R112H) in various countries. These are found in later-onset patients, and c.679C > T (p.R227X) and c.334C > T (p.R112C) classic ones. c.902G > A (p.R301Q) is found in both classic and later-onset form patients. A possible functional polymorphism, c.196G > C (p.E66Q), was identified in 0.4% of the subjects who underwent high-risk screening. The biochemical findings including leukocyte α-galactosidase A activity, plasma globotriaosylsphingosine level and urinary globotriaosylceramide in the individual phenotypic groups well reflected the phenotypic differences in this disease. The results will be useful for understanding the basis of Fabry disease in Japan.
Sakuraba, H., Tsukimura, T., Togawa, T., Tanaka, T., Ohtsuka, T., Sato, A., … Ohno, K. (2018). Fabry disease in a Japanese population-molecular and biochemical characteristics. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports, 17, 73–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2018.10.004