Associations of c-reactive protein, free triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone and creatinine levels with agitation in patients with schizophrenia: A comparative cross-sectional study

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Abstract

Purpose: Agitation is prevalent among inpatients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether biochemical parameters are associated with agitation in schizophrenia. Patients and Methods: Agitation was evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component questionnaire (PANSS-EC). Fasting serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), uric acid (UA), creatinine, glucose and lipids were measured. Results: The analysis included 154 inpatients with schizophrenia (71 with agitation, 83 without agitation) and 75 healthy control subjects. Patients with schizophrenia and agitation had higher serum levels of CRP, FT3, FT4 and UA as well as lower levels of serum TSH and creatinine than patients without agitation (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that serum CRP (odds ratio [OR] = 1.470, P = 0.001), FT3 (OR = 13.026, P < 0.001), TSH (OR = 0.758, P = 0.033) and creatinine (OR = 0.965, P = 0.004) were significantly associated with agitation in schizophrenia. CRP, FT3, TSH and creatinine achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.626, 0.728, 0.620 and 0.663 respectively in discriminating schizophrenia with or without agitation. Conclusion: Increased serum CRP and FT3 levels and decreased serum TSH and creatinine levels are independent risk factors for agitation in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Inflammation, thyroid hormones and renal function may be involved in the pathogenesis of agitation in schizophrenia.

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Li, C., Shi, Z., Ji, J., Niu, G., & Liu, Z. (2021). Associations of c-reactive protein, free triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone and creatinine levels with agitation in patients with schizophrenia: A comparative cross-sectional study. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 17, 2575–2585. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S322005

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