Background Mast cells are indispensable for LPS-induced septic hypothermia, in which TNF-α plays an essential role to initiate septic responses. ITK and BTK regulate mast cell responses to allergens, but their roles in mast cell responses in LPS-induced sepsis are unclear. Objective We sought to investigate the roles of ITK and BTK in mast cell responses during LPS-induced septic inflammation. Methods Mice (genetically modified or bone marrow-derived mast cell-reconstituted Sash) were given LPS to induce septic hypothermia in the presence or absence of indicated inhibitors. Flow cytometry was used to determine LPS-induced cell influx and TNF-α production in peritoneal cells. Microarray was used for genomewide gene expression analysis on bone marrow-derived mast cells. Quantitative PCR and multiplex were used to determine transcribed and secreted proinflammatory cytokines. Microscopy and Western blotting were used to determine activation of signal transduction pathways. Results The absence of ITK and BTK leads to exacerbation of LPS-induced septic hypothermia and neutrophil influx. Itk-/-Btk-/- mast cells exhibit hyperactive preformed and LPS-induced TNF-α production, and lead to more severe LPS-induced septic hypothermia when reconstituted into mast cell-deficient Sash mice. LPS-induced nuclear factor kappa B, Akt, and p38 activation is enhanced in Itk-/-Btk-/- mast cells, and blockage of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, Akt, or p38 downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 activation significantly suppresses TNF-α hyperproduction and attenuates septic hypothermia. Conclusions ITK and BTK regulate thermal homeostasis during septic response through mast cell function in mice. They share regulatory function downstream of Toll-like receptor 4/LPS in mast cells, through regulating the activation of canonical nuclear factor kappa B, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt, and p38 signaling pathways.
Huang, W., Morales, J. L., Gazivoda, V. P., & August, A. (2016). Nonreceptor tyrosine kinases ITK and BTK negatively regulate mast cell proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 137(4), 1197–1205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2015.08.056