PDZ binding-kinase (PBK) (also named T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK)), a serine/threonine kinase, is tightly controlled in normal tissues but elevated in many tumors, and functions in tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the signaling that regulates expression of PBK in cancer cells remains elusive. Here we show that atorvastatin (Lipitor), an inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase that is a rate-limiting enzyme of mevalonate pathway, down-regulates expression of PBK by impairing protein geranylgeranylation. The shRNA knockdown demonstrated that Yes-associated protein (YAP) mediates geranylgeranylation-regulated expression of PBK. Importantly, atorvastatin or the geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation through inactivation of YAP signaling and down-regulation of PBK. These findings have defined a new signaling pathway that regulated expression of PBK and identified PBK as a downstream target of the Hippo-YAP signaling, uncoverd a mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effect by inhibition of mevalonate pathway and geranylgeranylation, and provided a potential target for breast cancer targeted therapy.
Dou, X., Wei, J., Sun, A., Shao, G., Childress, C., Yang, W., & Lin, Q. (2015). PBK/TOPK mediates geranylgeranylation signaling for breast cancer cell proliferation. Cancer Cell International, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-015-0178-0