Nanoemulsions are kinetically stable systems containing two immiscible liquids, water and oil, stabilized by a layer of surfactant material with droplet diameters in the nano range, of less than 200 nm. They are classified as oil-in-water, water-in-oil or multiple nanoemulsions, depending on the relative spatial organization of the oil and aqueous phases. Nanoemulsions find many applications in food systems such as protection and delivery of food bioactives, encapsulation and controlled release of flavor or antimicrobial compounds and preparation of low-fat food products. Further, the kinetic stability, optical transparency and unique rheological characteristics of nanoemulsions have a major role in formulation of beverage emulsions. Bioactive compounds such as curcumin, beta-carotene, resveratrol, catechins, omega-3-fatty acids and others, when encapsulated in nanoemulsions, possess increased stability, improved solubility, higher intestinal retention time due to mucoadhesive property and enhanced absorption via direct uptake from the gastrointestinal tract. Food grade, biocompatible nanoemulsions are economically and industrially viable for production by employing scalable top-down high energy approaches such as high pressure homogenization. Thus, the distinct advantages of nanoemulsions over conventional emulsions are the chief reasons behind the improved research and development efforts in the food industry. This chapter focuses on the high energy and low energy approaches for the fabrication of nanoemulsions, characteristics and advantages of nanoemulsions and their applications in the food industry.
Bhushani, A., & Anandharamakrishnan, C. (2017). Food-Grade Nanoemulsions for Protection and Delivery of Nutrients (pp. 99–139). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53112-0_3