PLA has become a commodity polymer with wide applications in a number of fields. However, its high flammability with the tendency to flow in fire has limited its viability as a perfect replacement for the petrochemically-engineered plastics. Traditional flame retardants, which may be incorporated into PLA without severely degrading the mechanical properties, are the organo-halogen compounds. Meanwhile, these compounds tend to bioaccumulate and pose a risk to flora and fauna due to their restricted use. Research into PLA flame retardants has largely focused on organic and inorganic compounds for the past few years. Meanwhile, the renewed interest in the development of environmentally sustainable flame retardants (FRs) for PLA has increased significantly in a bid to maintain the integrity of the polymer. A review on the development of new flame retardants for PLA is presented herein. The focus is on metal oxides, phosphorus-based systems, 2D and 1D nanomaterials, hyperbranched polymers, and their combinations, which have been applied for flame retarding PLA are discussed. The paper also reviews briefly the correlation between FR loadings and efficiency for various FR systems, and their effects on processing and mechanical properties.
Tawiah, B., Yu, B., & Fei, B. (2018, August 6). Advances in flame retardant poly(lactic acid). Polymers. MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10080876