Outcomes in Chronic Hemodynamically Significant Aortic Regurgitation and Limitations of Current Guidelines

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Background: Few data exist on the contemporary profiles and outcomes of patients with significant aortic regurgitation (AR). Objectives: This study sought to assess the benefits of aortic valve repair or replacement (AVR) and the prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) dimensions in significant AR. Methods: From 2006 to 2017, consecutive patients with ≥moderate-severe chronic AR without prior heart surgery, myocardial infarction, or overt coronary artery disease were included. Results: Of 748 participants (58 ± 17 years of age; 82% men), 387 (52%) were medically treated, and 361 (48%) had AVR. Of 361 patients having AVR, 334 (93%) met guideline criteria: Class I indications in 284 (79%) patients, which included symptoms in 236, and Class II indications in 50 (14%). The remaining 27 (7%) opted for surgery without Class I or II indications. At a median follow-up of 4.9 years (interquartile range: 2.3 to 8.3 years), 125 (17%) patients had died. Age, comorbidities, baseline symptoms, and higher LV end-systolic dimension index (LVESDi) were associated with all-cause mortality (all p ≤ 0.01). Compared with patients having LVESDi <20 mm/m 2 , those with LVESDi 20 to 25 mm/m 2 (hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 2.31) and ≥25 mm/m 2 (HR: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.32 to 3.77) had increased risks of death. AVR was associated with better survival (p < 0.0001). Patients with Class I indications for surgery had inferior post-operative survival (p < 0.003). Conclusions: Class I indications for surgery, mainly symptoms, are the most common triggers for AVR. Class II indications were associated with better post-operative outcome and thus merit more attention. LVESDi was the only LV parameter independently associated with all-cause mortality and the ideal cutoff seems to be lower than previously recommended.




Yang, L. T., Michelena, H. I., Scott, C. G., Enriquez-Sarano, M., Pislaru, S. V., Schaff, H. V., & Pellikka, P. A. (2019). Outcomes in Chronic Hemodynamically Significant Aortic Regurgitation and Limitations of Current Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 73(14), 1741–1752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.01.024

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