Mutations were introduced into conserved steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1)– and SOX9-binding sites within the endogenous mouse Müllerian inhibiting substance (Mis) promoter. Male mice homozygous for the mutant SF1-binding site correctly initiated Mis transcription in fetal testes, although at significantly reduced levels. Surprisingly, sufficient MIS was produced to eliminate the Müllerian ducts. In contrast, males homozygous for the mutant SOX9-binding site did not initiate Mis transcription, resulting in pseudohermaphrodites. These studies suggest an essential role for SOX9 in the initiation of Mis transcription, whereas SF1 appears to act as a quantitative regulator of Mis transcript levels, perhaps for influencing non-Müllerian duct tissues. Comparative studies of Mis expression in vertebrates indicate that the Mis promoter receives transcriptional inputs that vary between species but result in the same functional readout.
Arango, N. A., Lovell-Badge, R., & Behringer, R. R. (1999). Targeted Mutagenesis of the Endogenous Mouse Mis Gene Promoter. Cell, 99(4), 409–419. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81527-5