Protozoan parasites are important animal and human pathogens. At present, most of these infections are controlled by chemotherapy. In addition, vaccines are available for some of these diseases. There is, however, still an urgent need for the development of vaccines against protozoal diseases, since the current array of available vaccines is very limited. This review describes the different approaches that have been taken to develop such vaccines and discusses the difficulties that hampered vaccine development. Many of the problems are related to the complex life cycle of these parasites and the virtual lack of mass in vitro culture systems. We also give an overview of the commercial and non-commercial vaccines that do exist at present. Finally, we describe the future directions of this interesting field. New techniques and strategies include parasite cultivation methods and recombinant-DNA techniques, such as vector vaccines and DNA-vaccines. Moreover, these approaches an complemented by the development of sophisticated adjuvants; the coupling of immunoprotective molecules to entities with adjuvant activity or the use of cytokines, e.g. IL-12. Through these innovations new vaccines against protozoal diseases will become available in the near future.
Cornelissen, A. W. C. A., & Schetters, T. P. M. (1996). Vaccines against protozoal diseases of veterinary importance. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/0928-8244(96)00040-5