In this chapter, I provide an overview of Portuguese Upper Paleolithic projectile points made from mammal bone and red deer antler. These artefacts were recovered from nine archaeological sites, located in two geographic regions: Estremadura and Algarve. The majority of the Upper Paleolithic osseous assemblages from Portugal come from old excavations, and as early studies of the points are rare or only preliminary in nature, our understanding of this industry in Portugal is poorly understood. Consequently, this chapter will address morphologic and functional variability of the Portuguese technology, and focus on several aspects including fracture and stigmata patterns remaining from their manufacture and use. As a preliminary conclusion, it appears that these osseous projectile points share features with similar others from the Southern Iberian region.
Évora, M. A. (2016). A review of the osseous projectile points from the upper paleolithic of Portugal. In Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology (pp. 131–141). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-0899-7_9