Background and aims: Metabolic Syndrome (Mets) and increased serum uric acid (SUA), are well known renal risk predictors and often coexist in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether they independently contribute to the onset of CKD is at present unclear. Methods and results: Within the AMD Annals database we identified patients with T2D and normal renal function and urine albumin excretion at baseline and regular follow-up visits during a 4-year period. Blood pressure, BMI, HDL, triglycerides, and SUA were available in 14,267 patients. The association between Mets and/or hyperuricemia (HU, top fifth gender specific quintile) and the occurrence of renal outcomes were evaluated. Results: At baseline 59% of patients (n = 8,408) showed Mets and 18% (n = 2,584) HU. Over the 4-year follow-up, 14% (n = 1,990) developed low eGFR (i.e. below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), and 26% (n = 3,740) albuminuria. After adjustment for confounders, BP≥130/85, low HDL, triglycerides ≥150 and HU were independently related to the development of low eGFR (1.57, P<0.001; 1.13, P = 0.056; 1.18, P = 0.008; 1.26, P = 0.001) and of albuminuria (1.35, P<0.001; 1.18, P = 0.001; 1.15, P = 0.002; 1.24, P = 0.001), respectively. The incidence of low eGFR was higher in patients with HU independent of the presence or absence of Mets (21%, OR 1.30, p = 0.009 and 20%, 1.57, p<0.000 respectively), while albuminuria occurred more frequently in those with Mets and HU (32%, OR 1.25, p = 0.005) as compared to the reference group. Conclusions: HU and Mets are independent predictors of CKD and its individual components in patients with T2D.
Viazzi, F., Piscitelli, P., Giorda, C., Ceriello, A., Genovese, S., Russo, G., … Pontremoli, R. (2017). Metabolic syndrome, serum uric acid and renal risk in patients with T2D. PLoS ONE, 12(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176058