We examined the variations in eating behavior, appetite ratings, satiety efficiency, energy expenditure, anthropometric and metabolic profile markers prior to, during as well as 1 and 4 months after Ramadan in normal-weight and obese men. Anthropometric, energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry and accelerometry), metabolic (fasting blood sample), appetite (visual analogue scales), and eating behavior (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) measurements were performed in 10 normal-weight (age: 25.2 ± 4.7 years; BMI: 24.4 ± 1.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and 10 obese (age: 27.0 ± 4.5 years; BMI: 34.8 ± 3.7 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) men. The satiety quotient (SQ) was calculated 180 minutes after breakfast consumption. All anthropometric variables, as well as resting and total energy expenditure, were greater in obese compared to normal-weight participants (P = 0.02-0.0001). Similarly, obese participants had greater triglycerides, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance concentrations (P = 0.02-0.002). Greater apolipoprotein B, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein concentrations were noted during Ramadan (P = 0.04-0.0001). Dietary restraint scores were also greater during Ramadan (P = 0.0001). No differences in anthropometry, other metabolic profile markers, energy expenditure, appetite ratings, and SQ were noted across sessions. Lastly, changes in anthropometric measurements correlated with delta metabolic profile markers, as well as changes in disinhibition eating behavior trait and dietary restraint scores. The Ramadan fast led to increases in certain metabolic profile markers despite no changes in appetite and anthropometry.
McNeil, J., Mamlouk, M. M., Duval, K., Schwartz, A., Nardo Junior, N., & Doucet, É. (2014). Alterations in Metabolic Profile Occur in Normal-Weight and Obese Men during the Ramadan Fast Despite No Changes in Anthropometry. Journal of Obesity, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/482547