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Background: Physicians doubt percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) insertion on cancer related hydronephrosis patients causes tumor seeding and worse cancer control. In this article, we attempted to determine if preoperative PCN alters cancer control in upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of UTUC patients in a single center from 2005 to 2015. Exclusion criteria included lymph node metastasis, and patients underwent perioperative adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy. There were 664 patients in this analysis, with clinico-pathological data being collected retrospectively for Cox-regression statistical analysis. Outcomes were measured by local recurrence, distant metastasis and cancer-specific death with Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: There were respectively 25 and 639 UTUC cancers in the preoperative PCN and non-PCN insertion groups with mean follow-up duration of 37.9 and 48.6 months, respectively. The preoperative PCN group consisted of 17 patients (68%) with tumor located in the ureter, while the PCN-negative group included 236 patients (36%) with tumor located in the ureter being statistically significant. These two groups were comparable in gender, age, follow-up duration, tumor stage, and pathological features of the UTUC. As for the cancer control in the PCN group, 4(16%), 1(4%) and 1(4%) had local recurrence, distant metastasis and cancer-specific death respectively; in the non-PCN group, 101(15.8%), 96(15%) and 72(11.2%) exhibited local recurrence, distant metastasis and cancer-specific death respectively. Statistical analysis showed no difference in oncologic outcomes between these two groups.(p = 0.804, 0.201 and 0.254). Conclusions: Preoperative percutaneous nephrostomy on upper-tract urothelial cancer poses little risk on tumor seeding and could be considered as part of treatment strategy if renal function preservation is needed.
Huang, G. L., Luo, H. L., & Chiang, P. H. (2019). Does preoperative percutaneous nephrostomy insertion worsen upper-tract urothelial cancer oncological outcome? A retrospective single center study. BMC Urology, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12894-019-0482-4