Objective: To understand the molecular mechanisms that lead to increased MMP-13 expression and cartilage degeneration during the progression of osteoarthritis (OA), we have investigated the expression of the transcription factor RUNX2 in OA cartilage and the regulation of MMP-13 expression by RUNX2 and FGF2 in articular chondrocytes. Design: RUNX2 and MMP-13 expression in human OA and control cartilage was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The effects of RUNX2 over-expression, with or without FGF2 treatment, on MMP-13 promoter activity and enzyme accumulation were measured in articular chondrocytes. Inhibitors of MEK/ERK were assayed for their ability to block FGF2 and RUNX2 up-regulation of the MMP-13 promoter. We analyzed RUNX2 phosphorylation in response to FGF2. Results: Fibrillated OA cartilage exhibited increased RUNX2 immunoreactivity when compared to control cartilage. RUNX2 co-localized with MMP-13 in clusters of chondrocytes in fibrillated OA cartilage. RUNX2 over-expression in cultured chondrocytes increased their responsiveness to FGF2 treatment, which led to increased MMP-13 expression. Inhibitors of MEK/ERK signaling blocked up-regulation of the MMP-13 promoter by RUNX2 and FGF2, and also blocked the activation of RUNX2 by FGF2. FGF2 treatment of articular chondrocytes increased RUNX2 phosphorylation approximately 2-fold. Conclusions: Increased expression of RUNX2 in OA cartilage may contribute to increased expression of MMP-13. FGF2, which is present in OA synovial fluid, activated RUNX2 via the MEK/ERK pathway and increased MMP-13 expression. However, it is unlikely that RUNX2 is a substrate of ERK1/2. RUNX2 expression and activation may be a significant step in the progression of OA by promoting changes in gene expression and chondrocyte differentiation. © 2004 OsteoArthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, X., Manner, P. A., Horner, A., Shum, L., Tuan, R. S., & Nuckolls, G. H. (2004). Regulation of MMP-13 expression by RUNX2 and FGF2 in osteoarthritic cartilage. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 12(12), 963–973. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2004.08.008