Summary: This review deals with the effect of several components of the broad term "lifestyle" on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Caffeine and coffee have an unfavourable effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections both on an acute and on a chronic basis. Acute consumption of tea, which contains not only a great amount of flavonoids but also caffeine, stiffens the arteries less than its caffeine content. Dark chocolate, also rich in flavonoids, has a beneficial acute effect on wave reflections, while its habitual consumption appears to have a beneficial effect both on aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Alcohol consumption has a J- or U-shaped effect on arterial stiffness and wave reflections; moderate consumption is beneficial, while high consumption may be deleterious. Salt restriction results in a rapid amelioration of arterial elastic properties. Smoking has been extensively associated with a deterioration of arterial stiffness and wave reflections both on an acute and on a chronic basis. Obesity (especially central) is generally associated with impaired arterial elastic properties, and weight loss is accompanied with improvement in arterial stiffness. Aerobic exercise is beneficial to arterial function, while resistance exercise has the opposite results. Data suggest that acute mental stress has a prolonged unfavorable effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Lifestyle has a significant, and increasingly recognised, impact on cardiovascular risk. An important part of this impact may be mediated through its effect on arterial stiffness and wave reflections given their important pathophysiological and prognostic role. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vlachopoulos, C., Alexopoulos, N., & Stefanadis, C. (2006). Lifestyle modification and arterial stiffness and wave reflections: A more natural way to prolong arterial health. Artery Research, 1(SUPPL. 1). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-9312(07)70003-0