Background: Infusion fluids may be contaminated with different types of particulates that are a potential health hazard. Particulates larger than microvessels may cause an embolism by mechanical blockage and inflammation; however, it has been reported that particulates smaller than capillary diameter are relatively safe. Against such a background, one report showed that polystyrene beads smaller than capillary diameter decreased tissue perfusion in ischemia-reperfusion injury. This report suggested that polystyrene beads from 1.5- to 6-μm diameter (dia.) may have unfavorable effects after pretreatment. Here, we investigated whether injection of polystyrene beads (3- and 6-μm dia.) as an artificial contaminant of intravenous fluid after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection affected mortality and organ damage in mice. Methods: Mice were divided into four groups and injected: polystyrene beads only, LPS only, polystyrene beads 30 min after LPS, or saline. A survival study, histology, blood examination, and urine examination were performed. Results: The survival rate after LPS and polystyrene bead (6-μm dia.) injection was significantly lower than that of the other three groups. In the kidney sections, injured glomeruli were significantly higher with LPS and polystyrene bead injection than that of the other three groups. LPS and polystyrene bead injection decreased the glomerular filtration rate and led to renal failure. Inflammatory reactions induced with LPS were not significantly different between with or without polystyrene beads. Polystyrene beads were found in urine after LPS and polystyrene bead injection. Conclusions: Injection of polystyrene beads after LPS injection enhanced glomerular structural injury and caused renal function injury in a mouse sepsis model.
Arima, H., Hirate, H., Sugiura, T., Suzuki, S., Takahashi, S., & Sobue, K. (2014). IV injection of polystyrene beads for mouse model of sepsis causes severe glomerular injury. Journal of Intensive Care, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/2052-0492-2-21