Dual-fuel combustion mode in compression ignition engines has been tested thoroughly, showing high potential for the reduction of emissions (especially nitric oxides and particulate matter) while keeping unchanged the fuel conversion efficiency compared with conventional Diesel engines. Controlling the reactivity of the secondary fuel is crucial for this kind of application. To this aim, a combined experimental/numerical approach is proposed in this study to provide, on one side, experimental data in controlled conditions for the calibration of the numerical models; on the other side, a numerical framework for the accurate simulation of the dual-fuel injection in engine-like operating conditions. More in detail, a constant-volume combustion vessel has been used to simulate and analyze the injection process varying the characteristic control parameters. Detailed high-resolution images of the injection and combustion processes were acquired for the validation of the numerical framework. Numerical simulations, carried out by means of the CONVERGE CFD code using a Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS) approach allow for understanding the key differences between the nominal and off-design settings. Results have been compared with the experimental data in terms of liquid spray penetration. A comparison with high resolution images has also been done to prove the accuracy of the model to describe the spray evolution in terms of spray characteristics. In the provided picture, this contribution aims at demonstrating the robustness of the experimental/numerical framework that is essential for further development of such engine solution.
Bartolucci, L., Carlucci, A. P., Cordiner, S., Ficarella, A., Laforgia, D., Mulone, V., … Strafella, L. (2018). Dual-fuel injection fundamentals: Experimental - Numerical analysis into a constant-volume vessel. In Energy Procedia (Vol. 148, pp. 18–25). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2018.08.014