YY1 Upregulates Checkpoint Receptors and Downregulates Type I Cytokines in Exhausted, Chronically Stimulated Human T Cells

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Abstract

T cells infiltrate affected organs in chronic infections and malignancy, but they may fail to eradicate virus-infected cells or tumor because of exhaustion. This report describes a Yin Yang-1 (YY1)-centered mechanism for diverse components that have been correlated with exhaustion. Utilizing an in vitro reconstruction of chronic T cell activation, YY1 is shown to positively regulate the checkpoint receptors PD1, Lag3, and Tim3 and to negatively regulate the type I cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) (in collaboration with Ezh2 histone methyltransferase) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Other tests suggest that IL-2 failure drives a large component of cytotoxic functional decline rather than solely checkpoint receptor-ligand interactions that have been the focus of current anti-exhaustion therapies. Clinical evaluations confirm elevated YY1 and Ezh2 in melanoma tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and in PD1+ T cells in patients with HIV. Exhaustion is revealed to be an active process as the culmination of repetitive two-signal stimulation in a feedback loop via CD3/CD28→p38MAPK/JNK→YY1→ exhaustion. Cancer Systems Biology; Immune Response; Immune System Disorder

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APA

Balkhi, M. Y., Wittmann, G., Xiong, F., & Junghans, R. P. (2018). YY1 Upregulates Checkpoint Receptors and Downregulates Type I Cytokines in Exhausted, Chronically Stimulated Human T Cells. IScience, 2, 105–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2018.03.009

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