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Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated malignancy remain a main cause of cancer in men and women. Cancer immunotherapy has represented great potential as a new promising cancer therapeutic approach. Here, we report Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a carrier for the delivery of oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) for the treatment of HPV-associated tumor. Methods: For this purpose, MSCs obtained from the bone marrow of C57BL mice, then cultured and characterized subsequently by the flow cytometry analysis for the presence of cell surface markers. In this study, we sought out to determine the impacts of MSCs loaded with oncolytic NDV on splenic T cell and cytokine immune responses, caspase-3 and -9 expression, and myeloid and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) by histological and immunohistochemical studies in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Results: Our findings proved that MSCs possess both migratory capacity and tumor tropism toward transplanted tumor tissue after peritumoral administration. Tumor therapy experiments indicated that oncolytic NDV delivered by MSCs-engineered system significantly reduces tumor growth, which is associated with the enhancement of E7-specific lymphocyte proliferation, CD8+ T cell cytolysis responses, and splenic IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-12 responses compared with control groups. Moreover, the treatment upregulated the concentration of apoptotic proteins (caspase 9) and increased infiltration of tumor microenvironment with CD11b + myeloid and Gr1 + MDSCs cells. Conclusions: Our data suggest MSCs carrying oncolytic NDV as a potentially effective strategy for cancer immunotherapy through inducing splenic Th1 immune responses and apoptosis in the tumor microenvironment.
Keshavarz, M., Ebrahimzadeh, M. S., Miri, S. M., Dianat-Moghadam, H., Ghorbanhosseini, S. S., Mohebbi, S. R., … Ghaemi, A. (2020). Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus delivered by Mesenchymal stem cells-engineered system enhances the therapeutic effects altering tumor microenvironment. Virology Journal, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01326-w