The antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities of cardamom, cloves, coriander, cumin seeds, curry leaves, fenugreek, mustard seeds, nutmeg, sweet cumin, and star anise extracts were investigated in an in vitro model of digestion mimicking the gastric and duodenal conditions. The total phenolic contents in all spice extracts had statistically significantly (P<0.05) increased following both gastric and duodenal digestion. This was also in correlation with the antioxidant assays quantifying the water-soluble antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The lipophilic Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay did not indicate a statistically significant change in the values during any of the digestion phases. Statistically significant (P<0.05) reductions in the anthocyanin contents were observed during the digestion phases in contrast to the carotenoid contents. With the exception of the cumin seed extract, none of the spice extracts showed statistically significant changes in the initial starch hydrolase enzyme inhibitory values prior to gastric and duodenal digestion. In conclusion, this study was able to prove that the 10 spices were a significant source of total phenolics, antioxidant, and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities.
Jayawardena, N., Watawana, M. I., Jayathilaka, R. T., & Waisundara, V. Y. (2015). The Antioxidant and Starch Hydrolase Inhibitory Activity of Ten Spices in an in Vitro Model of Digestion: Bioaccessibility of Anthocyanins and Carotenoids. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/764238