Unilamellar liposomes of small or large size, SUVs and LUVs, respectively, were stably immobilized in the highly hydrophilic Sepharose 4B or Sephacryl S-1000 gel beads as a membrane stationary phase for immobilized liposome chromatography (ILC). Lipophilic cations of triphenylmethylphosphonium and tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) have been used as probes of the membrane potential of cells. Interaction of TPP+ and triphenylalkylphosphonium homologues with the immobilized liposomal membranes was shown by their elution profiles on both zonal and frontal ILC. Retardation of the lipophilic cations on the liposome gel bed was increased as the hydrophobicity of the cations increased, indicating the partitioning of lipophilic cations into the hydrocarbon region of the membranes. The cations did not retard on the Sepharose or Sephacryl gel bed without liposomes, confirming that the cations only interact with the immobilized liposomes. Effects of the solute concentration, flow rate, and gel-matrix substance on the ILC were studied. The stationary phase volume of the liposomal membranes was calculated from the volume of a phospholipid molecule and the amount of the immobilized phospholipid, which allowed us to determine the membrane partition coefficient (K(LM)) for the lipophilic cations distributed between the aqueous mobile and membrane stationary phases. The values of K(LM) were generally increased with the hydrophobicity of the solutes increased, and were higher for the SUVs than for the LUVs. The ILC method described here can be applied to measure membrane partition coefficients for other lipophilic solutes (e.g., drugs). Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.
Yang, Q., Liu, X. Y., Umetani, K., Kamo, N., & Miyake, J. (1999). Partitioning of triphenylalkylphosphonium homologues in gel bead-immobilized liposomes: Chromatographic measurement of their membrane partition coefficients. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, 1417(1), 122–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-2736(98)00249-1