As modern vehicles are capable to connect to an external infrastructure and Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication technologies mature, the necessity to secure communications becomes apparent. There is a very real risk that today's vehicles are subjected to cyber-attacks that target vehicular communications. This paper proposes a three-layer framework (sensing, communication and control) through which automotive security threats can be better understood. The sensing layer is made up of vehicle dynamics and environmental sensors, which are vulnerable to eavesdropping, jamming, and spoofing attacks. The communication layer is comprised of both in-vehicle and V2X communications and is susceptible to eavesdropping, spoofing, man-in-the-middle, and sybil attacks. At the top of the hierarchy is the control layer, which enables autonomous vehicular functionality, including the automation of a vehicle's speed, braking, and steering. Attacks targeting the sensing and communication layers can propagate upward and affect the functionality and can compromise the security of the control layer. This paper provides the state-of-the-art review on attacks and threats relevant to the communication layer and presents countermeasures.
El-Rewini, Z., Sadatsharan, K., Selvaraj, D. F., Plathottam, S. J., & Ranganathan, P. (2020, June 1). Cybersecurity challenges in vehicular communications. Vehicular Communications. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vehcom.2019.100214