Evolving molecular epidemiological profile of human immunodeficiency virus 1 in the southwest border of China

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Abstract

Background: We have previously reported in Xishuangbanna (Banna) Dai Autonomous Prefecture, a well-developed tourist destination in the southwest border of China, that HIV-1 transmitted dominantly through heterosexual contact with less divergent genotypes and few drug resistant mutations [1]. Due to the rapid increase of newly diagnosed HIV-1 cases per year in Banna in recent years, it's important to evaluate the evolution of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology for the better understanding of ongoing HIV-1 outbreak in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings: By sequencing of HIV-1 pol genes and phylogenetic analysis, we conducted a molecular epidemiologic study in 352 HIV-1-seropositive highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-naive individuals newly diagnosed at the Banna Center for Disease Control and Prevention between 2009 and 2011. Of 283 samples (84.1% taken from heterosexually acquired adults, 10.6% from needle-sharing drug users, 2.8% from men who have sex with men, 0.4% from children born from HIV-1-infected mothers, and 2.1% remained unknown) with successful sequencing for pol gene, we identified 108 (38.2%) HIV-1 subtype CRF08-BC, 101 (35.7%) CRF01-AE, 49 (17.3%) CRF07-BC, 5 (1.8%) C/CRF57-BC, 3 (1.1%) B', 1 (0.4%) B/CRF51-01B, and 16 (5.7%) unique recombinants forms. Among these infected individuals, 104 (36.7%) cases showed drug resistant or resistance-relevant mutations, and 4 of them conferring high-level resistance to 3TC/FTC, EFV/NVP or NFV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 21 clusters (2-7 sequences) with only 21.2% (60/283) sequences involved. Conclusion/Significance: In contrast to our previous findings, CRF08-BC, replaced CRF01-AE, became the dominant genotype of HIV-1 in Banna prefecture. The viral strains with drug resistance mutations were detected frequently in newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected individuals in this region.

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Chen, Y., Chen, S., Kang, J., Fang, H., Dao, H., Guo, W., … Lu, W. (2014). Evolving molecular epidemiological profile of human immunodeficiency virus 1 in the southwest border of China. PLoS ONE, 9(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107578

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