Question: Do strategies to enhance self-efficacy and exercise mastery affect adherence to home-based pelvic floor muscle exercises in women with urinary incontinence? Design: Two-arm, parallel, randomised, controlled trial with intention-to-treat analysis. Randomisation was performed using computer-generated random numbers in five blocks of 20 women. Participants: Eighty-six women with stress, urgency or mixed urinary incontinence. Intervention: All participants underwent three individual physiotherapy clinic visits at Day 0, 15 and 30, and 2 further months of home-based pelvic floor muscle exercises. The experimental group also received self-efficacy enhancing interventions, including a structured discussion on accomplishments and goals, a 9-minute video with testimonials, and a reminder. Outcome measures: The primary outcome - adherence to at least 20 fast and 20 slow contractions every day - was evaluated with a structured questionnaire at 15, 30 and 90 days after enrolment and completion of a daily diary. A validated questionnaire was used to assess urinary incontinence. Self-efficacy and pelvic floor muscle function were also measured. Results: Seven women withdrew from each group before the Day-30 assessment. There was no difference in adherence to pelvic floor muscle exercises at 90 days between the groups (MD 0.5 points, 95% CI -1.1 to 2.1) on the questionnaire, which was scored from 2 to 21. At Day 90, 56% of the experimental group and 44% of the control group were performing the exercises every day. Adherence scores of both groups decreased during the 2-month follow-up period without any supervised physiotherapy session (p< 0.05). The groups did not differ on the remaining secondary outcomes. Conclusion: Discussion of accomplishments and goals, a testimonial video and a reminder did not increase exercise adherence more than exercise mastery. Trial registration: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials UTN:U1111-1128-8684. [Sacomori C, Berghmans B, Mesters I, de Bie R, Cardoso FL (2015) Strategies to enhance self-efficacy and adherence to home-based pelvic floor muscle exercises did not improve adherence in women with urinary incontinence: a randomised trial].
Sacomori, C., Berghmans, B., Mesters, I., de Bie, R., & Cardoso, F. L. (2015). Strategies to enhance self-efficacy and adherence to home-based pelvic floor muscle exercises did not improve adherence in women with urinary incontinence: A randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy, 61(4), 190–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphys.2015.08.005