The N-terminal half of adenovirus e1a assembles multimeric complexes with host proteins that repress innate immune responses and force host cells into S-phase. In contrast, the functions of e1a's C-terminal interactions with FOXK, DCAF7, and CtBP are unknown. We found that these interactions modulate RAS signaling, and that a single e1a molecule must bind all three of these host proteins to suppress activation of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs were otherwise induced in primary respiratory epithelial cells at 12 hr p.i. This delayed activation of ISGs required IRF3 and coincided with an ∼10-fold increase in IRF3 from protein stabilization. The induced IRF3 bound to chromatin and localized to the promoters of activated ISGs. While IRF3, STAT1/2, and IRF9 all greatly increased in concentration, there were no corresponding mRNA increases, suggesting that e1a regulates the stabilities of these key activators of innate immune responses, as shown directly for IRF3. Zemke and Berk report that interactions of neighboring regions in the C-terminal half of a single adenovirus e1a molecule with a host transcription factor, a co-repressor, and a ubiquitin ligase substrate receptor inhibit a noncanonical activation of interferon-stimulated genes by adenovirus infection.
Zemke, N. R., & Berk, A. J. (2017). The Adenovirus E1A C Terminus Suppresses a Delayed Antiviral Response and Modulates RAS Signaling. Cell Host and Microbe, 22(6), 789-800.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2017.11.008