Combination of lyophilized adipose-derived stem cell concentrated conditioned medium and polysaccharide hydrogel in the inhibition of hypertrophic scarring

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Abstract

Background: Mesenchymal stem cell-based acellular therapies have been widely exploited in managing hypertrophic scars. However, low maintenance dose and transitory therapeutic effects during topical medication remain a thorny issue. Herein, this study aimed to optimize the curative effect of adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium (ADSC-CM) in the prevention of hypertrophic scarring. Methods: In the present study, ADSC-CM was concentrated via the freeze-drying procedure. The efficacy of different dose groups (CM, CM5, CM10) was conducted on the proliferation, apoptosis, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression of human keloid fibroblasts (HKFs) in vitro. Incorporation of adipose-derived stem cell concentrated conditioned medium (ADSCC-CM) into polysaccharide hydrogel was investigated in rabbit ear, in vivo. Haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Masson’s trichrome staining were performed for the evaluation of scar hyperplasia. Results: We noted that ADSCC-CM could downregulate the α-SMA expression of HKFs in a dose-dependent manner. In the rabbit ear model, the scar hyperplasia in the medium-dose group (CM5) and high-dose group (CM10) was inhibited with reduced scar elevation index (SEI) under 4 months of observation. It is noteworthy that the union of CM5 and polysaccharide hydrogel (CM5+H) yielded the best preventive effect on scar hyperplasia. Briefly, melanin, height, vascularity, and pliability in the CM5+H group were better than those of the control group. Collagen was evenly distributed, and skin appendages could be regenerated. Conclusions: Altogether, ADSCC-CM can downregulate the expression of α-SMA due to its anti-fibrosis effect and promote the rearrangement of collagen fibres, which is integral to scar precaution. The in situ cross bonding of ADSCC-CM and polysaccharide hydrogel could remarkably enhance the therapeutic outcomes in inhibiting scar proliferation. Hence, the alliance of ADSCC-CM and hydrogel may become a potential alternative in hypertrophic scar prophylaxis.

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Zhang, C., Wang, T., Zhang, L., Chen, P., Tang, S., Chen, A., … Chen, X. (2021). Combination of lyophilized adipose-derived stem cell concentrated conditioned medium and polysaccharide hydrogel in the inhibition of hypertrophic scarring. Stem Cell Research and Therapy, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02061-3

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