Local anesthesia and anxiolytic techniques for oculoplastic surgery

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Abstract

This study discusses local anesthetic agents, administration techniques, ancillary considerations, and safety precautions for oculoplastic surgery including eyelid, lacrimal, orbital, and temporal artery biopsy procedures. Methods for reducing patient apprehension and discomfort including systemic premedication, topical pre-anesthetic, visual, auditory and tactile distraction techniques, regional blocks, small gauge needles, warmed lidocaine, and buffered lidocaine are discussed.

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APA

Ing, E. B., Philteos, J., Sholohov, G., Kim, D. T., Nijhawan, N., Mark, P. W., & Gilbert, J. (2019). Local anesthesia and anxiolytic techniques for oculoplastic surgery. Clinical Ophthalmology. Dove Medical Press Ltd. https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S188790

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