In the late 1980s, Vical and collaborators discovered that the injection into tissues of unformulated plasmid encoding various proteins resulted in the uptake of the plasmid by cells and expression of the encoded proteins. After this discovery, a period of technological improvements in plasmid delivery and expression and in pharmaceutical and manufacturing development was quickly followed by a plethora of human clinical trials testing the ability of injected plasmid to provide therapeutic benefits. In this chapter, we summarize in detail the technologies used in the most recent company-sponsored clinical trials and discuss the potential for future improvements in plasmid design, manufacturing, delivery, formulation and administration. A generic path for the clinical development of plasmid-based products is outlined and then exemplified using a case study on the development of a plasmid vaccine from concept to clinical trial. © Springer-Verlag 2005.
Manthorpe, M., Hobart, P., Hermanson, G., Ferrari, M., Geall, A., Goff, B., & Rolland, A. (2005, November 8). Plasmid vaccines and therapeutics: From design to applications. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/10_003