Patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have divergent survival outcomes and therapeutic responses, which may be determined by underlying molecular diversity. We aimed to develop a practical molecular assay that can identify subtypes with differential prognosis and response to targeted therapy. Whole-genome expression analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material from 55 ccRCC patients was performed and two molecular subtypes with differential clinical outcomes were identified by hierarchical clustering. An eight-gene quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for classification into two subtypes was developed for FFPE material. The primary objective was to assess assay performance by correlating ccRCC prognostic subtypes to cancer-specific survival (CSS) and, for patients receiving targeted therapy, radiologic response. In three validation cohorts, patients could be distinguished into prognostic subtypes with differential CSS (Singapore General Hospital FFPE cohort: n = 224; p = 1.48 × 10-8; the Cancer Genome Atlas RNA-Sequencing cohort: n = 419; p = 3.06 × 10-7; Van Andel Research Institute microarray cohort: n = 174; p = 0.00743). For 48 patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, the prognostic classification was associated with radiologic response to treatment (p = 5.96 × 10-4) and prolonged survival on TKI treatment (p = 0.019). The multigene assay can classify ccRCCs into clinical prognostic subtypes, which may be predictive of response in patients receiving TKI therapy.
Choudhury, Y., Wei, X., Chu, Y. H., Ng, L. G., Tan, H. S., Koh, V., … Tan, M. H. (2015). A multigene assay identifying distinct prognostic subtypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma with differential response to tyrosine kinase inhibition. European Urology, 67(1), 17–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.06.041