Impact of beta-blocker treatment on the prognostic value of currently used risk predictors in congestive heart failure

Citations of this article
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.


OBJECTIVES: This prospective study tested the impact of beta-blocker treatment on currently used risk predictors in congestive heart failure (CHF). BACKGROUND: Given the survival benefit obtained by beta-blockade, risk stratification by factors established in the "pre-beta-blocker era" may be questioned. METHODS: The study included 408 patients who had CHF with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45%, all treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist, who were classified into those receiving a beta-blocker (n = 165) and those who were not (n = 243). In all patients, LVEF, peak oxygen consumption (peakVo2), plasma norepinephrine (NE) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were determined. RESULTS: Although the New York Heart Association functional class (2.2 ± 0.7 vs. 2.3 ± 0.7), peakVo2 (14.4 ± 5.2 ml/min per kg vs. 14.4 ± 5.5 ml/min per kg) and NT-proBNP (337 ± 360 pmol/l vs. 434 ± 538 pmol/l) were similar in the groups with and without beta-blocker treatment, the group with beta-blocker treatment had a lower heart rate (68 ± 30 beats/min vs. 76 ± 30 beats/min), lower NE (1.7 ± 1.2 nmol/l vs. 2.5 ± 2.2 nmol/l) and higher LVEF (24 ± 10% vs. 21 ± 9%; all p < 0.05). Within one year, 34% of patients without beta-blocker treatment, but only 16% of those with beta-blocker treatment (p < 0,001), reached the combined end point, defined as hospital admission due to worsening CHF and/or cardiac death. A beneficial effect of beta-blocker treatment was most obvious in the advanced stages of CHF, because the end-point rates were markedly lower (all p < 0.05) in the group with beta-blocker treatment versus the group without it, as characterized by peakVo2 < 10 ml/min per kg (26% vs. 64%), LVEF ≤20% (25% vs. 45%), NE >2.24 nmol/l (18% vs. 40%) and NT-proBNP >364 pmol/l (27% vs. 45%), although patients with beta-blocker treatment received only 37 ± 21% of the maximal recommended beta-blocker dosages. CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic value of variables used for risk stratification of patients with CHF is markedly influenced by beta-blocker treatment. Therefore, in the beta-blocker era, a re-evaluation of the selection criteria for heart transplantation is warranted. © 2002 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.




Zugck, C., Haunstetter, A., Krüger, C., Kell, R., Schellberg, D., Kübler, W., & Haass, M. (2002). Impact of beta-blocker treatment on the prognostic value of currently used risk predictors in congestive heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 39(10), 1615–1622.

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free