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Protein ubiquitination has become one of the most extensively studied post-translational modifications. Originally discovered as a critical element in highly regulated proteolysis, ubiquitination is now regarded as essential for many other cellular processes. This results from the unique features of ubiquitin (Ub) and its ability to form various homo- and heterotypic linkage types involving one of the seven different lysine residues or the free amino group located at its N-terminus. While K48- and K63-linked chains are broadly covered in the literature, the other types of chains assembled through K6, K11, K27, K29, and K33 residues deserve equal attention in the light of the latest discoveries. Here, we provide a concise summary of recent advances in the field of these poorly understood Ub linkages and their possible roles in vivo.
Tracz, M., & Bialek, W. (2021). Beyond K48 and K63: non-canonical protein ubiquitination. Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters, 26(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s11658-020-00245-6