Autophagy-modulating long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their molecular events in cancer

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Abstract

Cancer is a global threat of health. Cancer incidence and death is also increasing continuously because of poor understanding of diseases. Although, traditional treatments (surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) are effective against primary tumors, death rate is increasing because of metastasis development where traditional treatments have failed. Autophagy is a conserved regulatory process of eliminating proteins and damaged organelles. Numerous research revealed that autophagy has dual sword mechanisms including cancer progressions and suppressions. In most of the cases, it maintains homeostasis of cancer microenvironment by providing nutritional supplement under starvation and hypoxic conditions. Over the past few decades, stunning research evidence disclosed significant roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the regulation of autophagy. LncRNAs are RNA containing more than 200 nucleotides, which have no protein-coding ability but they are found to be expressed in most of the cancers. It is also proved that, autophagy-modulating lncRNAs have significant impacts on pro-survival or pro-death roles in cancers. In this review, we highlighted the recently identified autophagy-modulating lncRNAs, their signaling transduction in cancer and mechanism in cancer. This review will explore newly emerging knowledge of cancer genetics and it may provide novel targets for cancer therapy.

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Khan, M. Z. I., Tam, S. Y., & Law, H. K. W. (2019). Autophagy-modulating long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their molecular events in cancer. Frontiers in Genetics. Frontiers Media S.A. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00750

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