Visualizing molecular intermediates and monitoring reaction pathways in atomic detail have been difficult. In a recent work published in Nature Chemistry, Riss et al. succeeded in using atomic force microscopy to identify the structure and relative abundance of transient intermediates and products in the course of an alkyne dimerization-cyclization reaction cascade.
Tang, B. Z. (2016, September 1). “Seeing” the Invisibles at the Single-Molecule Level. Chem. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chempr.2016.08.013