Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) deficiency is a rare combined immunodeficiency disease. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment. Between June 1994 and February 2007, 30 children with MHC II deficiency underwent a total of 33 HSCT procedures. Median age at HSCT was 27 months. The stem cell source was unmanipulated bone marrow from HLA-identical related donors in 26 patients, one HLA antigen-mismatched bone marrow in 3 patients, and unrelated umbilical cord blood in 1 patient. Conditioning was with one of 3 myeloablative regimens-regimen A (18 patients): busulfan (Bu), cyclophosphamide (Cy), and etoposide; regimen B (2 patients): Bu, Cy, and antithymocyte globulin (ATG); or regimen C (1 patient): CY and total body irradiation (TBI)-or with a reduced-intensity regimen (12 patients): fludarabine, melphalan, and ATG. The median CD34 cell dose was 8.3 × 106/kg. Twenty patients experienced immune reconstitution and had sustained engraftment ranging from 9% to 100% for lymphoid lines and from 5% to 100% for myeloid lines that were significant to cure the disease. The overall disease-free survival rate was 66% and 76% after HLA-identical HSCT, with a median follow-up of 6.3 years, which is higher than previously reported. In HLA-identical transplant recipients, reliable donor stem cell engraftment and immune reconstitution were achieved through myeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning. Further studies and long-term follow-up are needed to determine the appropriate conditioning regimen. © 2010 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Al-Mousa, H., Al-Shammari, Z., Al-Ghonaium, A., Al-Dhekri, H., Al-Muhsen, S., Al-Saud, B., … El-Solh, H. (2010). Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Using Myeloablative and Reduced-Intensity Conditioning in Patients with Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Deficiency. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 16(6), 818–823. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.01.002