The relationship of the hyperinsulinemic state to left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular geometric patterns, microalbuminuria, and physical fitness were studied in 52 middle-aged unmedicated men with borderline and mild hypertension. Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were assessed by echocardiography. Physical fitness was determined by symptom-limited maximal treadmill stress testings. The urinary concentration of microalbumin and C-peptide was measured in 24-h urine samples by radioimmunoassey. The 24-h urinary C-peptide excretion rate was correlated with left ventricular mass index (r = 0.46), relative wall thickness (r = 0.41), treadmill time (r = -0.35), normalized treadmill time (r = -0.52), systolic blood pressure at peak exercise (r = 0.29), and 24-h urinary microalbumin excretion (r = 0.48). Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified the left ventricular mass index, the 24-h urinary albumin excretion, and the normalized treadmill time as variables in the equation for the 24-h urinary C-peptide excretion. Thus, the hyperinsulinemic state is related to left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and impaired physical fitness in patients with borderline and mild hypertension.
Tomiyama, H., Doba, N., Kushiro, T., Yamashita, M., Kanmatsuse, K., Kajiwara, N., … Hinohara, S. (1997). The relationship of hyperinsulinemic state to left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and physical fitness in borderline and mild hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension, 10(6), 587–591. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7061(97)00067-8