The current Swedish price models of district heating is based on previous experience of system operation. This strategy does not work well under the circumstances of decreasing demand and shifting consumption pattern. Therefore there is a need to reform it. A comprehensive survey on existing price models in Sweden was carried out. Four basic price components have been identified, including a load demand component. Different companies may have various proportions for each component. The survey also shows that most of the district heating companies do not consider their customers' consumption pattern while charging the heating fee.
Songa, J., Wallina, F., Lia, H., & Karlssona, B. (2016). Price models of district heating in Sweden. In Energy Procedia (Vol. 88, pp. 100–105). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2016.06.031