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Background: Galectin-3 binding protein (Gal3BP), sCD163, galectin-3, and depression have been linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality. In patients with type 1 diabetes, female sex has also been linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality. The aim was to explore whether female sex, sCD163, galectin-3, and depression were associated with Gal3BP in patients with type 1 diabetes. We adjusted for metabolic variables, creatinine, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular disease. Methods: Cross-sectional design. Patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 285, women 44%, age18-59 years, diabetes duration 1-55 years) were consecutively recruited from one diabetes outpatient clinic. Blood samples, anthropometrics, and blood pressure were collected, supplemented with data from electronic medical records. High Gal3BP was defined as ≥3.3 mg/l (≥80th percentile). Depression was assessed by a self-report instrument. Linear and logistic regression models were elaborated for the associations and calibrated and validated for goodness of fit with the data variables. Results: Median (q1, q3) Gal3BP was 2.3 (1.8, 3.1) mg/l. The prevalence of high Gal3BP for women was 30% and 14% for men (p = 0.001). Female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.0), sCD163 (per μg/l) (AOR 6.6), and total cholesterol (per mmol/l) (AOR 1.6) were positively associated with high Gal3BP, and HDL-cholesterol (per mmol/l) (AOR 0.2) was negatively associated with high Gal3BP. Conclusions: High Gal3BP levels were associated with female sex, increasing sCD163 and total cholesterol levels, and decreasing HDL-cholesterol levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. The prevalence of high Gal3BP was more than twice as high in the women as in the men.
Melin, E. O., Dereke, J., & Hillman, M. (2019). Female sex, high soluble CD163, and low HDL-cholesterol were associated with high galectin-3 binding protein in type 1 diabetes. Biology of Sex Differences, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0268-0