The successful completion of the Zhengzhou–Xi'an high-speed railway project has greatly improved the construction level of China's large-section loess tunnels, and has resulted in significant progress being made in both design theory and construction technology. This paper systematically summarizes the technical characteristics and main problems of the large-section loess tunnels on China's high-speed railway, including classification of the surrounding rock, design of the supporting structure, surface settlement and cracking control, and safe and rapid construction methods. On this basis, the key construction techniques of loess tunnels with large sections for high-speed railway are expounded from the aspects of design and construction. The research results show that the classification of loess strata surrounding large tunnels should be based on the geological age of the loess, and be determined by combining the plastic index and the water content. In addition, the influence of the buried depth should be considered. During tunnel excavation disturbance, if the tensile stress exceeds the soil tensile or shear strength, the surface part of the sliding trend plane can be damaged, and visible cracks can form. The pressure of the surrounding rock of a large-section loess tunnel should be calculated according to the buried depth, using the corresponding formula. A three-bench seven-step excavation method of construction was used as the core technology system to ensure the safe and rapid construction of a large-section loess tunnel, following a field test to optimize the construction parameters and determine the engineering measures to stabilize the tunnel face. The conclusions and methods presented here are of great significance in revealing the strata and supporting mechanics of large-section loess tunnels, and in optimizing the supporting structure design and the technical parameters for construction.
Zhao, Y., He, H., & Li, P. (2018). Key Techniques for the Construction of High-Speed Railway Large-Section Loess Tunnels. Engineering, 4(2), 254–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2017.07.003