Lead-free ceramics with the composition 0.91K1/2Bi1/2TiO3-0.09(0.82BiFeO3-0.15NdFeO3-0.03Nd2/3TiO3) were prepared using a conventional solid state, mixed oxide route. The ceramics exhibited a high strain of 0.16% at 6 kV mm-1, stable from room temperature to 175 °C, with a variation of <10%. The materials were fabricated into multilayer structures by co-firing with Pt internal electrodes. The prototype multilayer actuator exhibited constant strains up to 300 °C with a variation of ∼15%. The composition showed fatigue resistant behaviour in both monolithic and multilayer form after bipolar loading of 106 cycles.
Khesro, A., Wang, D., Hussain, F., Sinclair, D. C., Feteira, A., & Reaney, I. M. (2016). Temperature stable and fatigue resistant lead-free ceramics for actuators. Applied Physics Letters, 109(14). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4964411