Objective: To determine the metabolic response associate with dengue infection based on human gender metabolic differences by means of <sup>1</sup>H NMR-spectrometry. Methods: The mid-stream urine collected from both male and female patients diagnosed with dengue fever at Penang General Hospital and fourty-three healthy individuals were analyzed with <sup>1</sup>H NMR spectroscopy, followed by chemometric multivariate analysis. NMR signals which highlighted in the OPLS-DA S-plot were further selected and identified using Human Metabolome Database, Chenomx Profiler. Results: The results pointed out that NMR urine profiling was able to capture human gender metabolic differences that are important for the distinction of classes of individuals of similar physiological conditions; infected with dengue. Distinct differences between dengue infected patients versus healthy individuals and subtle differences in male versus female infected with dengue were found to be related to the metabolism of amino acid and tricarboxylic acid intermediates cycle. Conclusions: The <sup>1</sup>H NMR metabolomic investigation combined with appropriate algorithms and pattern recognition procedures, gave an evidence for the existence of distinct metabolic differentiation of individuals, according to their gender, modulates with the infection risk.
Shahfiza, N., Osman, H., Hock, T. T., Shaari, K., & Abdel-Hamid, A. H. Z. (2015). Metabolomics for characterization of gender differences in patients infected with dengue virus. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 8(6), 451–456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.05.012