Purpose: To audit our experience with ultrasound-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms. Methods: A retrospective study of 85 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of post-catheterization femoral pseudoaneurysms during the period January 2002 to May 2007. Results: Pseudoaneurysms had a mean maximum diameter of 3.3 cm (range 1.0-7.6 cm) and a mean neck width of 3.4 mm (range 1.0-7.0 mm). No statistically significant correlation existed between maximum diameter and neck width (Kendall's rank correlation tau b = -0.09, p = 0.5). The median dose of thrombin injected was 425 U (range 100-1500 U). The procedure resulted in complete sac thrombosis in 81 (95%) patients. Seventy-nine pseudoaneurysms thrombosed immediately after one injection, whereas two required a second thrombin injection. There were no procedural complications. The maximum diameter of the pseudoaneurysm was predictive of procedural success (Wilcoxon's rank sum test, p = 0.001) and of the 5 patients with a pseudoaneurysm measuring ≥6 cm, ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was unsuccessful in 4 (4/5 versus 0/80, p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). Three of these necessitated implantation of a stent-graft, whereas one required repeated thrombin injection and coil placement. In contrast, the pseudoaneurysm neck width did not seem to relate to the success of the procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of is a quick, effective and safe treatment for iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms. For larger pseudoaneurysms, although it is worth attempting more than one thrombin injection, endovascular repair may eventually be required. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Vlachou, P. A., Karkos, C. D., Bains, S., McCarthy, M. J., Fishwick, G., & Bolia, A. (2011). Percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms. European Journal of Radiology, 77(1), 172–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2009.06.032